Author Archives: Erika Grey

About Erika Grey

Erika Grey is an evangelical Christian author, commentator, EU Correspondent, blogger, freelance writer and online business owner. www.erikagrey.com features Erika's books, blogs and articles and is the home of Bible Prophecy Headquarters and Bible Prophecy News Desk, which provides Bible Prophecy News Updates for Bible Prophecy Watchers. Erika is a skilled researcher, which is marked by her work, The Seat of the Antichrist: Bible Prophecy and the European Union, an expose on the European Union, current affairs and Bible Prophecy for which Erika speaks on radio shows across the country as a commentator.

Summary of EU Treaties on Political Union

Summary of the E.U. Treaties on Political Union

Treaties Establishing E.U. Government

The EU has been evolving politically since the early 1990′s. A series of treaties amended the original E.U. treaties strengthening the EU government thus giving the E.U. a political dimension. These are:

The Maastricht Treaty

In December 1991 E.U. leaders convened the Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union (IGC) at Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Maastricht achieved:

The E.U.’s firm commitment to establish economic and monetary union (EMU) involving a single currency governed by a European Central Bank by 1999.

The first step in adding a political dimension to the E.U.

Allowed the E.U. to forge common foreign and defense policies for the first time.

The Amsterdam Treaty

In 1996, E.U. leaders met and concluded the intergovernmental conference that led to the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty on October 2, 1997 and entered into force on May 1, 1999. The treaty did not accomplish what many had hoped. This treaty was supposed to make many internal changes so that the Union could enlarge to include new members.

The Amsterdam Treaty:

The Amsterdam Treaty created a representative to speak for the Union on foreign policy issues; the High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, which acted as a junior foreign minister.

Amended and renumbered the E.U. and E.C. Treaties.
Strengthened Union’s powers in foreign policy and judicial cooperation.

The Nice Treaty

E.U. leaders met and negotiated the Treaty of Nice and signed it on February 26, 2001, as an amendment to the existing treaties. The Nice Treaty overhauled the institutions of the European Union in preparation for a union of twenty-seven Member States rather than fifteen.

The Nice Treaty:

Provided the E.U. with a military structure and staff.

Made changes concerning power sharing within the European institutions as the Union expands.

Capped the number of seats in the European Parliament and the size of the Commission, two of the European Union’s leading institutions.

Prepared the E.U. for enlargement

Added more competencies for the E.U. including employment policy and a common foreign and security policy to cement the Union’s political union.

The Laeken Declaration

On December 14 and 15, 2001, the European Council met in Laeken with the purpose of providing impetus to increase the momentum of integration. They adopted a declaration of their intention to achieve a simpler union, and one that would have more presence in the world.

They initiated a convention run by Federalists Valery Giscard d’Estaing, Giuliano Amato, and Jean-Luc Dehaene to write the Constitution of the Union-which, unlike the US Constitution, would become the final treaty, encompassing all of the previous treaties.

By October of 2002, the convention presented a draft treaty for the Union.

Laeken addressed the transition to euro coins, enlargement, internal market issues, the September 11 attacks, and the Union’s policies on combating terrorism, including their actions in Afghanistan and a declaration of their position in the Middle East. The Laeken Declaration asked: “What is Europe’s role in this changed world? Does Europe not, now that it is finally unified, have a leading role to play in the new world order, that of a power able both to play a stabilizing role worldwide and to point the way ahead for many countries and peoples?” Laeken also provided teeth to the military structure organized at Nice.

The Lisbon Treaty

In 2003, the E.U. drafted its Constitution and in 2004-2005, the E.U. Council approved the European Constitution (Treaty) and the Member States voted on it and rejected it.

The European Council met in Lisbon for a new E.U. reform treaty (instead of a European constitution.) In 2007, E.U. leaders signed the Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force on December 1, 2009. The European Constitution merged into the Lisbon Treaty. The Lisbon Treaty amended previous E.U. treaties and is more modest than the previous constitutional project.

The Lisbon Treaty:

The Charter of Fundamental Rights, which covers freedom and speech and religion, will legally bind 25 of the 27 E.U. Members. Britain and Poland obtained an opt-out.

Made changes to the E.U. institutions- The European Central Bank gained official status of being an E.U. institution along with the Council of Europe.

The euro became the official currency of the Union

Renamed the E.U.’s leading institutions

The High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy created by the Amsterdam Treaty was promoted to Vice President and Foreign Minister of the Union along with other changes to help the 27 member union run smoothly, efficiently and to move it forward politically.

The EU’s Sovereign Debt Crisis exposed the flaws of the previous treaties in the area of Monetary Union. The E.U. made as many possible changes short of a treaty change to correct these issues.

Discussions for a change to the Lisbon Treaty are well on their way and the Spinelli group has written and proposed The Fundamental Law of the European Union to consolidate all of the previous treaties.

James Rickards on Dollar Collapse & Euro as Future Reserve

This article is one of a three-part series based on my interview with James Rickards

Europe is Doing Everything Right, Euro Will Replace Doomed Dollar & EU Bond Market Will Trigger Dollar Collapse: Euro Will Replace Doomed Dollar
These articles were first published on my blog at blogactiv eu “EU vs. US: Commentary From the US.

Europe is Doing Everything Right

In a time of euro skepticism and criticism of E.U. affairs from many corners, James Rickards declared in an interview, “Not only is Europe doing a lot of things right, in fact, I think they are doing everything right.”

U.S. Economist James Rickards, whose expertise lies in international finance and who has consulted the U.S. Pentagon and assumed such roles during his 35 years on Wall Street as Hedge Fund and Portfolio Manager, and Senior Managing Director for Market Intelligence OMNIS, spoke favorably of E.U. decisions and its handling of its sovereign debt crisis during our interview.

Each juncture of the E.U.’s evolution from its implementation of the Common Market directives in the mid-1990s, to the launch of the euro in 1999, to the E.U.’s ability to remedy its sovereign debt crisis has been met by financial and political experts with skepticism.

The E.U. currently has 508 million citizens to the U.S.’s 314 million, and its economy is now bigger than the U.S.’s. In addition, the E.U. is the headquarters to 178 of the Fortune 500 companies. I asked James Rickards, “While all of these facts that are found everywhere why is the E.U. underestimated by experts?”

“It is underestimated by experts in the United States … There’s almost a kind of euro hatred in the United States. I don’t know what to say about it except that they have been wrong for a long period of time.”

“If you go back three years to 2011 or even to early 2012 you had very prominent economists like Nouriel Roubini, Paul Krugman; some of them were Nobel Prize winners, and they’re running around with their hair on fire saying, “The euro is going to collapse. Greece is going to be kicked out of the euro.”

“I was the one three years ago who said that’s was all nonsense nobody is getting kicked out, no one is quitting. In fact the Eurozone will add members over time and the currency itself is strong and getting stronger, and it has played out exactly as I described.”

“As a political project if the political will is there to succeed, then it will succeed because states are very powerful, and more powerful than markets.”

James Rickards further added, “When you look at important parliamentary elections or referendums their pro- European forces have not lost one and there is very substantial progress in the direction of European economic integration.” Rickards cited the fiscal and uniform banking regulations as examples.

Concerning the experts who were wrong in predicting the collapse of the euro, he stated, “They were not only wrong, but you don’t hear much from them these days, you certainly don’t hear Nouriel Roubini going out talking about the end of the euro because that’s certainly not happening… how could so many smart people-these people are not dumb they are trained economists, and they have high IQ’s – and so many market participants be so wrong?”

James Rickards authored Currency Wars: the Making of the Next Global Crisis .and the New York Times best seller, The Death of Money: The Collapse of the International Monetary System, which is an extensive reference work on the reasons the dollar will cease to be the world’s reserve currency. Rickard’s book provides an overview of the current landscape of the international monetary system.

James Rickards Favors Euro as Future World’s Reserve Currency

Erika Grey, Yahoo Contributor Network
U.S. Economist James Rickards’ New York Times best-selling book, The Death of Money: The Collapse of The International Monetary System, is an extensive reference work on the reasons the dollar will cease to be the world’s reserve currency and provides an overview of the current landscape of the international monetary system.

Concerning the dollar collapse, he stated that it is inevitable, and at this point he is “waiting for an avalanche or a trigger for it to come tumbling down.” In my interview with James Rickards, I asked him is there the possibility, of a role reversal between the E.U. and U.S. after the dollar collapse.

“Yes and it is certainly a possibility. I won’t say the only possible outcome, but it is a very strong possibility. The European monetary zone, the euro zone already is larger and more powerful than the U.S. except for the fact that its fragmented into these 18 separate parts. They’re moving very quickly to unification; they’ve taken large steps …. They’ve got more steps in preparation. So the more integrated they are the more they will look like what’s called a United States of Europe.”

During my interview, he made another prediction and became the first economist to answer the question, “What currency will replace the dollar?” James Rickards forecasts that if “A catastrophic collapse of the dollar does not take place the euro may replace the dollar anyway.”

“The fact that Europe is making structural changes others are not; Europe is attracting Chinese capital. Europe is unifying Europe is doing pretty much everything right, so over time the world may find the euro as a very attractive alternative to the dollar. Actually, the currency already is… the problem isn’t the currency; the problem is the investable assets. Anything can be a trade currency; the euro is a trade currency, … but a reserve currency is different to be a reserve currency you need a large pool of investable assets, things that I can buy and put in my portfolio, and that’s where Europe actually falls down today. …they are broken down into these 18 separate debt markets they don’t want to have a unified sovereign debt market. You can see that coming.”

Rickards also talks favorably of the ECB versus the U.S. Federal Reserve, which he speaks negatively concerning Fed decisions. He stated concerning the ECB, ” you have a central bank that actually sticks to what it’s supposed to do, which is to maintain a sound currency and maintain price stability and doing a very good job of that.

He speaks very highly of the euro and favors it because of its gold reserves. In talking about the system after the dollar collapse he predicts, “It is entirely foreseeable what the new system look like and who the powers are who will be sitting around the table.”

“One of the points I make is that you think of it as a poker game as a game … and I’m not saying were automatically going to have a gold standard, but gold will be your pile of poker chips and gold is going to determine whether you get a seat at the table or in the backroom sitting against the wall.”

“Interestingly Europe, the European monetary zone that backs the euro-the 18 countries …they have the largest pile of chips, they have over 10 thousand tons of gold. The United States comes in second, we have about 8 thousand tons of gold, after that believe it or not is the IMF, the International Monetary Fund, they have almost 3 thousand tons of gold.”

“China is playing a very interesting game, China officially says that they have 154 tons, they said in 2009, but there is very good data that they have secretly acquired thousands of tons of gold since then. That’s not some deep dark conspiracy, we can see that with hard data, we can see it in Chinese mining operations and Chinese imports through Hong Kong and sources, and these are all discussed in Chapter 9 and 11 of my book, The Collapse of Money, so it is all very well documented. You can put China for 3 or 4 thousand tons of gold at this point, and they are still acquiring more.”

“So the collapse is coming, it is completely predictable, gold is going to determine who gets the biggest voice in the new system. And Europe has the largest pile of gold, so they are going to be the biggest player in this reset.”

EU Bond Market Will Trigger Dollar Collapse
E.U. Bond Market Will Trigger Dollar Collapse

U.S. Economist James Rickards’ New York Times bestselling book, The Death of Money: The Collapse of the International Monetary System, is an extensive reference work on the reasons the dollar will cease to be the world’s reserve currency and provides an overview of the current landscape of the international monetary system.

In an interview with James Rickards, he stated, “Europe is doing everything right” and he predicted that the euro would most likely overtake the dollar as the world’s reserve. He added that to be a reserve currency rather than a trade currency the E.U. needs a “unified sovereign debt market.”

“And that’s where Europe actually falls down today. …they are broken down into these 18 separate debt markets. They don’t want to have a unified sovereign debt market. You can see that coming at which point once you take the integration a few steps further…and create this unified European sovereign debt market where the bonds are issued or backed by the full faith and credit of the Eurozone; then it will be in a position to displace the dollar.”

“The next step, the next thing coming is the creation of a true European sovereign debt market, they don’t have that right now. When the total amount of euro denominated sovereign debt is comparable to the US treasury market … the euro is positioned to displace the dollar as the global reserve currency.”

“The reason that has not happened so far is because while the total European sovereign debt is comparable to the U.S. treasury market, it is broken into separate markets: you have Italian debt, Spanish debt, German debt, Netherlands debt etc. It’s all denominated in euros, but it comes from numerous different issuers and not one of those markets is able to absorb the capital flows we see going into treasuries.”

“Now what will happen next is that Europe will agree that European sovereign debt going forward will be backed by the full faith and credit of the Eurozone. That is an enormously important development… The euro actually could displace the dollar as the leading reserve currency at that point. Germany is controlling all this. Germany has not wanted to do that yet.”

“Have you had a chance to look that over the Commission Green Paper on Stability Bonds?”

I have and this is coming, but Merkel’s playing a very tough game. She doesn’t want to go there right away because she thinks it would be too easy…t would let the Greeks, the Portuguese and the Irish, it would let them off the hook. She wants to see more structural reforms. She wants to see more economic adjustment, fiscal responsibility, improvements in labor laws, and improvements in labor mobility, etc. ….When she gets it then she will embrace this unified debt market that were talking about, but not yet because she wants to see more progress, but we are getting progress. This is moving in the right direction…This might be three or four years away. It’s going to happen, and I expect that it will… I think that you’ll see the Chinese, The Russians, Arabs the remainder of the BRICS, and other countries around the world flocking into European Sovereign Debt, and that will be extremely detrimental to the role of the dollar. That’s kind of best case that’s if we don’t have a crisis.

The Trumpet and Bowl Judgments of Revelation

The Plagues of the Great Tribulation

In the book of Revelation the Trumpet and Bowl Judgments represent God’s wrath unleashed onto the earth during the second half of the Tribulation. Six angels with trumpets deliver the first six plagues and the seventh angel with the seventh trumpet discharges the seven angels with the seven bowl judgments.

Jesus warned of this time and Daniel 12:1 confirms, “And there shall be at time of trouble, Such as never was since there was a nation, Even to that time.”

The seven angels who stand before God with the seven trumpets bring the following:

Angel 1- Hail and fire burn up a third of trees and grass.

Angel 2-A Volcano in the sea turns the sea to blood killing 1/3 of fish and ships.

Angel 3-A meteor falls like a torch in bodies of waters making them bitter and kill men who drink from them.

Angel 4-A third of the sun moon and stars darkens the day.

Angel 5-Locusts, which sting like scorpions torment men for five months.

Angel 6-An army of 200 million kill one-third of mankind.

After the these trumpets, the great angel appears with a little book. He utters seven thunders, but God tells him not to write what they spoke. This angel declares there should be no more delay, that with the sounding of the seventh angel, the mystery of God will be finished that He declared to His prophets. He gave John the little book to eat that tasted sweet as honey, but in his stomach became bitter. He told him he must prophesy about many people.

While the Revelation gives a prelude to the seventh bowl of the seventh trumpet, it continues to provide details of the events of the Tribulation, prior to the 7th bowl. This final bowl unleashes the finale or cataclysmic end of the world.

In the 15th Chapter, John witnesses the seven angels having the seven final plagues to complete the wrath of God. The temple of the tabernacle of testimony in heaven was opened and out of the temple came seven angels with the seven last plagues (Rev. 15:8). The temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God and from His power. No one could enter the temple until the seven plagues of the seven angels were completed. Chapter 16 releases the bowl judgments:

Bowl 1 Loathsome sores form on those who have the Mark of the Beast.

Bowl 2 The sea becomes like blood, and all sea creatures die.

Bowl 3 The rivers and springs become blood.

Bowl 4 The sun scorches men with fire.

Bowl 5 The throne of the Beast’s kingdom darkens, and men gnaw in pain.

Bowl 6 Poured on river Euphrates to prepare for Armageddon. Spirits like frogs from the mouth of the Beast, False Prophet and Dragon go out to kings of the earth of the whole world to gather them to the battle of Armageddon.

Bowl 7 World-shattering earthquake and 100-pound hail.

The “Great Tribulation” begins in the middle of the seven-year time frame (Dan. 9:25-27). All of these plagues will be released during it. They end at the battle of Armageddon; the most famous battle known to man, which will unite the world’s armies together in the war that ends all wars. This prompts the second coming of Jesus Christ, who returns in judgment with His heavenly battalion. Immediately, after God causes the cataclysmic finale of the sun darkening, stars falling from the sky and the powers of the heavens shaken (Matt. 24:29). The sky will literally roll up as a scroll and marks the end of the world.

Short Summary of the Book of Revelation

Understanding the Book of Revelation

While all judgment prophecies are harsh and frightening, the Revelation prophecy stands out as the most terrifying. It ends in the cataclysmic destruction of the earth. The entire book of Revelation is devoted to the end of the world and details God’s judgments unleashed upon the earth plague by plague. Revelation is the last book of the Bible and is a prophetic book of the end of the age and the return of Christ. It also describes the world that will come into being after this earth is destroyed.

Revelation simply forecasts the apocalypse, which is a synonym for Revelation. The dictionary term for it means:

1. The complete final destruction of the world, esp. as described in the biblical book of Revelation.
2. An event involving destruction or damage on an awesome or catastrophic scale.
While the creation occurred in seven days, the end of the world happens over a seven-year time frame. Seven is God’s number of perfection.

The book begins stating that it is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants-things, which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John.

The prophecy comes with a blessing, Revelation 1:3 states, “Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near.” Likewise, the Revelation prophecy comes with a curse, Revelation 22:18-19 states:

For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book. And if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

John begins the book by addressing the seven churches. While God spoke through the Old Testament prophets to talk to the 12 tribes of the children of Israel, the Revelation begins with Jesus communicating to the seven churches. Jesus appears to John in His glory, and He speaks directly to the churches. The language is the same as in the books of the Old Testament prophets, with references to Jezebel and Balaam as the seven churches are now grafted alongside the children of Israel.

John on the island of Patmos, received the Revelation of Jesus Christ. Jesus Himself instructed John to write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after this (Rev. 1:19).
While Revelation’s language is similar to all other prophetic books, it differs in four major areas:

1. The word is given by Jesus Christ and has His claim of authorship and the equivalent of his signature at the end of the Revelation.
2. The entire vision takes place in God’s throne room. God’s throne
The throne room is seen by three other prophets, Ezekiel, Isaiah and Daniel. In Jesus’s revelation, He shows John the throne room in full detail and glory.

3. While the creation in Genesis describes what God made each day, the earth’s destruction is almost ceremonial with angels, trumpets and bowls.
4. The prophecy comes with a blessing and also a curse.
The book of Revelation lines with the book of Daniel and the prophets, including Joel’s Day of the Lord, which Isaiah also describes. It elaborates on and parallels Jesus’s discourse in the gospels concerning the earth’s last days. We even find the horsemen in the book of Zechariah and the lion, leopard, bear beast of Revelation 13 mentioned in Hosea.

One-third of Scripture is prophetic. History records the fulfillment of all biblical prophecies except the Revelation prophecy. Simply, the Revelation details the seven year Tribulation period on earth. The “Great Tribulation” begins in the middle of the seven-year time frame (Dan. 9:25-27). It ends at the battle of Armageddon; the most famous battle known to man, which will unite the world’s armies together in the war that ends all wars. Immediately, after God causes the cataclysmic finale of the sun darkening, stars falling from the sky and the powers of the heavens shaken (Matt. 24:29). This prompts the second coming of Jesus Christ, who returns in judgment with His heavenly battalion and marks the end of the world.

EU Politicians Correct Flawed Online News Article

EU Politicians Correct Flawed Online News Article

A Media First: Politicians Correct On-line Article Regarding EU Post

Thanks to the internet, European Union (EU) politicians have done what has never been done before: they went on-line and corrected a news article. EurActiv is a leading online-media network covering EU news and its policy. According to its website, EurActiv provides “accurate and in-depth coverage on European policies.” For any person following European Union news, it is a major news source and a leading European online paper.

On November 12, 2012, EurActiv published an article speculating nominations for the 2014 EU Commission Presidency. The article headlined, “Verhofstadt to be left out of the race for Barroso successor,” stated “the Liberal Congress, held in Dublin from 8 to 10 November, said that even if Verhofstadt is an obvious candidate for Commission president, the party is unable to put forward his candidacy, because Rasmussen, a former Danish Prime minister whose mandate as NATO leader expires in 2014, has ambitions to get the job of Herman Van Rompuy as Council president, EurActiv was told.”

The article declared only one liberal can hold a leading post and Guy Verhofstadt is a prominent liberal EU politician. The news story attracted leading EU politicians, who corrected the facts in the comment section.

Andrew Duff, Member of Parliament to the East of England and President of the Union of European Federalists, made the following statement in the comment section:

“I am not the only European Liberal – present throughout the recent Dublin congress – to be astonished by your conclusion that Guy Verhoftstadt is not likely to be our candidate for the Presidency of the European Commission in 2014…”

Former Dutch politician and MEP, Lousewies va der Laan, is the Vice President of Aliance of Liberals and Democrats and added,” The analysis of MEP Duff is correct. As vice-president I was in all the relevant meetings and your piece is one-sided, incorrect and frankly not worthy of EurActiv. A correction would be appreciated.”

Koen van Ramshorst, adviser to Hans van Baalen MEP commented,” I agree with Lousewies. The article does not reflect the decisions made in Dublin concerning the nomination of an ALDE candidate for the Presidency of the European Commission in 2014.”

Georgi Gotev, EurActiv’s senior editor came onto the thread and rebutted with a blog post, he stated, “Dear Lousewies, dear all, to avoid confusion, see also my blogpost: Verhofstadt Still N.1 Choice to Succeed Barroso.

In print media, politicians and celebrities endured reporter’s errors. Misquotes and omissions of unknown facts were reluctantly accepted as part of the process. Politicians and celebrities were never able to correct those mistakes with any ease. That is, until now thanks to the internet age.

The Maastricht Treaty

Maastricht: The EU’s First Treaty on Political Union

In April 1990, France and Germany launched the idea of a new Treaty on Political Union that would include foreign policy. That month, during the Dublin Summit the Community firmly committed itself to political union.

On December 15, 1990, the Council of Ministers met in Rome at an Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union (IGC).

In December 1991, one year later at Maastricht, the Netherlands, the conference convened.

Maastricht’s most solid achievement was the firm commitment to establish economic and monetary union (EMU) involving a single currency governed by a European Central Bank by 1999, which it accomplished.

Along with monetary union, the treaty established the beginnings of a common defense component which would evolve with later treaties.

Article J.4 of the Treaty on European Union added: “The common foreign and security of the Union, including the eventual framing of a common defense policy, which might in time lead to a common defense.” It paved the way to the creation of a distinct political identity.

The Maastricht agreement marked the first step in adding a political dimension to the EU, and transforming it from an economic venture into a political reality. An objective of the Maastricht Treaty was for the EU to “assert its identity on the international scene…through the implementation of a common foreign and security policy.” The Maastricht Treaty, a 189-page document, allowed the EU to forge common foreign and defense policies for the first time.

Prior to Maastricht, the EU acted in the area of foreign policy through European Political Cooperation (EPC). This was the EU’s process of consultation and common action among its members in the field of foreign policy. An EPC meeting brought together the Member States’ highest officials, their foreign ministers, and the EU Commission. The confidential telex system (coreu) linked the twelve foreign ministries of the Member States, the EPC secretariat, and the Commission. It provided rapid and secure communications, and reduced the need for holding special ministerial meetings. Through its single, coherent approach, EPC aimed to maximize its influence in international affairs. Maastricht turned EPC into something more than a consultation club; it laid the foundation for a real government. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty changed the name of the European Communities to the European Union and gave the EU the formal title of “Union.”

The Economist , commenting on the treaty, stated: “Believers in a federal Europe insist that the treaty lays down the main elements, if only in embryo, of a future European government, a single currency, common foreign and defense policy, a common citizenship and a parliament with teeth. It is just a matter of waiting they believe, for history to take its course.”

3 Modern Hurricane Terms for the Hurricane Age

Hurricane Terms Becoming Commonplace

The “hurricane age” and modern technology have ushered in new hurricane terms that are becoming common during hurricanes. For those of us who have lived through the recent hurricanes of Irene and Sandy we have become familiar with these new terms; they are:
Charging Stations- Large number of people lose electrical power during a hurricane. There is only so much battery time they have on their cell phones, laptops or other devices. These persons can now go to charging stations to charge their cell phones and other gadgets when they lose power during a hurricane.

Community Shelters and Hot Meals-These are not area homeless shelters, but rather community shelters that are set up to help those forced to evacuate their homes. They are usually located in local high schools or other town buildings. Many will also provide meals. Some will only supply hot meals for those who do not need a shelter, but only need a hot meal because they are unable to cook. Some will offer shelter only, meals only or both shelter and meals.

Showers- These are set up for those who are without power and need to shower. They are erected in local high schools or other town buildings that possess showers. In Connecticut, Planet Fitness offered its facility for showers providing the locations have electrical power..

In addition, terms that were once seldom heard in our hurricane verbiage are now becoming commonplace such as:

Evacuation

Curfew

National Guard

State of Emergency

These were words, which once shocked us, but they have become everyday “end of the world weather” hurricane terms and are part of routine procedure.

We are watching mayors and governors enact measures that once were unthinkable. With the approach of Hurricane Sandy, New York City stopped all public transit and shut down major bridges such as the George Washington Bridge and the Whitestone Bridge. New Jersey even entered a new hurricane term into the mix: Federal Disaster, which they declared their state.

The increasing rate of devastating hurricanes has brought certain terms into our vocabulary. For those who have not yet experienced or lived through any and who may yet suffer though one, comfort yourself in knowing that your town or city will most likely follow suit with other communities. Charging stations, community shelters, hot meals and community showers will be available to you as well.

The Role of World Institutions in Globalization

World Institutions and Globalization

During World War II, world leaders recognized the need for international economic institutions. These laid the foundation for globalization.

In 1944, political leaders established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

In 1948 the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) followed along with a new wave of regional organizations. It instituted a code of rules by which countries could trade, as well as a forum for resolving trade disputes. It aimed to liberalize world trade through the reduction of trade barriers. Nations coordinated their trade policies through the GATT. During the Uruguay Round in April 1994, over 120 countries signed an agreement in Marrakesh, Morocco, that created the World Trade Organization (WTO). The successor to the GATT, it acts as the United Nations of world trade, and continues to liberalize the global market. It began operation in January of 1995.

The UN, founded with 51 Member States, now includes 192. The UN’s peacekeeping role broadened considerably in recent years. Since the end of the Cold War, the UN has involved itself in the settling of conflicts across the globe. Commenting on this development, The Economist stated in an article that appeared in their November 9, 1991 issue entitled, “New Ways To Run the World” : “For the first time the nations of the world, rich and poor, are beginning to cooperate for agreed ends on a scale that hitherto only idealists have even dreamed about.”

In 1991, a year before the Earth Summit, thirty-six respected world leaders put forth a document calling for a World Summit on Global Governance. The Stockholm Initiative aims to strengthen the UN so that it can better handle the global challenges of the future. It seek to adopt a new approach to maintaining and developing international law. The proposed Commission on Global Governance seeks to strengthen the UN or form a new institution for the same purpose. Former European Commission President Jacques Delors suggested that the UN develop a “Council for Economic Security” to rewrite the rules for the global village. Delors saw it as unacceptable that single nations attempt to solve problems that have a worldwide scope.

The idea of having international rules echoes in many foreign affairs journals and has for several decades. Dennis Healy, Britain’s former Defense Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer, stated in 1991 in his article “Pax Americana is a Dangerous Illusion,” which appeared in the August/September 1991 issue of European Affairs: “If we are talking about a new world order, I can only see a role for the UN. We can no longer tackle the great problems like environmental pollution, migration and global arms control, on a regional basis. International rules are required, especially when we remember that the population of the world is doubling every 50 years.”

In 1944, The International Monetary Fund (IMF), founded at the Bretton Woods Conference secures global monetary joint action. It enlists 184 member nations.

In 1975 The Conference on Security and Cooperation began functioning. It enlists 56 nations. It deals with security, human rights, and trade as a regional organization under the UN Charter. Its job includes giving early warning of potential conflicts, improving crisis management, and developing military confidence-building mechanisms. Besides the CSCE, other regional organizations have sprung up since World War II.

The EU bases its policy and laws on those of global institutions. For areas of policy not covered by any of these groups the EU establishes its own. The Council of Europe deals with human rights, health, migration, law, culture, and the environment. All of these bodies use abbreviated letters or acronyms which are synonymous with the EU. Political leaders are negotiating and signing so many of these treaties that it would require an entire book to list and explain them all. All of these groups act as the foundation stones for globalization.

What is Globalization?

How Globalization is Coming About?

Globalization is the merging of the nation’s systems and governmental processes around the globe. Social, economic, and political trends are bringing about this unification. Even religion is following the global path through organizations such as the World-Wide Council of Churches.
With today’s technology, no one nation remains isolated. Television satellites, fax machines, and data banks bring many countries together in the transference of information. Technology has made the world a smaller, more unified place. While Globalization is a process, technological developments act as the catalyst that speeds it along. Payment systems of major countries closely interlink. Banks around the globe communicate electronically. Today’s economies are interdependent and interconnected. Flows of trade and money tie countries more closely together than at any time in history. A recession in one country effects growth in others.

In addition to economic and financial interdependence, the world is breaking up into regional groupings of nations that act as trade blocs. As twenty to thirty nations form one of these blocs, they become a section of the globe. As the world coalesces into sections, unification becomes a simpler process. Five or six parts of a pie join easily, compared to over 160 pieces of a puzzle. The Great Recession showed the impact of globalization the day the American financial markets plummeted. The European markets followed and caused a ripple effect hitting every major market around the globe. Within days major financial papers reported that the world economy had literally come to a stop.

National problems that have a worldwide impact such as the recession, nuclear arms buildup, the environment, and drugs, have prompted nations to intensify their efforts to work together. Banks even unite internationally to fight computer crime and money laundering.

The Earth Summit of 1992 brought together nations from around the globe to coordinate global environmental policy. This Summit involved nearly four times as many countries as founded the UN. According to the book, Beyond Interdependence: The Meshing of the World’s Economy and the Earth’s Ecology the authors quoted Maurice Strong the Secretary General for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, felt that environmental problems jeopardized all nations. Problems such as global warming, the ozone hole, acid rain, soil degradation, and deforestation. He stated that “the world has now moved beyond economic interdependence to ecological interdependence-and even beyond that to an intermeshing of the two. The world’s economic and earth’s ecology are now interlocked-’unto death do them part,’ to quote one of Canada’s industrial leaders. This is the new reality of the century, with profound implications for the shape of our institutions of governance, national and international.” Thus globalization is a merging that is a byproduct of today’s world.

European Federalism in a Nutshell

European Federalism in a Nutshell

Federalist Ideology

Federalists believe that sovereign nations are no longer able to solve the world’s problems. They regard national sovereignty as a traditional, outmoded governmental precept of the past. European federalists view the sovereign nation state as an unfit model for organizing relations between European states. By pooling specific areas of sovereignty nations can prevent war and gain the ability to influence their futures.

In the December 1991 issue of European Affairs, Franz Anderiessen, former Vice President of the EU Commission, stated in his article: “The Integration of Europe: Its Now or Never,””Europe, and the world at large have suffered immeasurably, not least in this enlightened century, from exaggerated ideas of the role of the sovereign states.” The European Commission in part funds the New Federalist, the newsletter of the Young European Federalists. An eminent member of the World Federalists in the United States stated in an essay, which appeared in their 1992, No. 2 newsletter on the Introduction To World Federalism:

The current nation-state system is impractical and, in many ways, a global anarchy…Presently, blind, idolatrous nationalism is the primary force in opposition to world federation. Children at a young age must be taught the importance of loyalty to one’s family, community and homeland… loyalty to one’s planet must also be emphasized. Is there a better way than war and economic coercion to solve the world conflict? Yes, a better alternative is through system of equitable and enforceable world law.

Federalists aim for a new world based on the rule of international law, thus achieving Pax Universalis. To the federalist, one’s loyalty belongs to planet Earth. Urgency accompanies their cause, with the slogan “mankind must unite or perish.” Some members believe federalism is a force that will be unleashed throughout the whole world. They view global unity as the utopian solution to end all wars. Federalists believe that with the collapse of communism, their goal for world government has become a concrete and political aim.

With threats global in nature, nations will find no other alternative but to align with one another. Federalism’s precepts have humanistic aims. The New Federalist summed up the ideology for international law in their Introduction To World Federalism issue published in 1992 by stating that:

Federalism overcomes the cause of war. The division of the world into sovereign states with the world federation, that final stronghold of violence between men, war, will be eliminated. International anarchy will be replaced by the rule of law between states. The world federation will, as Kant taught us, open up a world in which man can consider other men as ends in themselves and in which he can fully and autonomously develop all the capacities that are within him. The world federation will open the history of the human race.